منډيګک
افغان تاريخ

ALAMA ABDUL SHAKOOR RASHAD

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“It is a centuries old tradition in the world that countries, populations, communities, families and even personalities are subject to ups and downs, lows and highs, increase and decrease, weakness and strength, and life and death. There are reasons behind all of these changes; the research and inquiry of these reasons and the investigation of their effect and outcome is the object of history”. [1]

PROF. ALAMA RASHAD IN INDIA

Academician (Acad.) Professor (Prof.) Abdul Shakoor Rashad was one of the greatest Afghan writers in the fields of Language, History and Literature, as well as a significant historian, linguistic, researcher, social and political figure in Afghanistan. Acad. Prof. Alama Rashad was given the honorary title of ‘Alama’ (Laureate, Academician) by the Afghan people and scholars in a large and national gathering prior to Alama being honored with the scientific rank of ‘Academician’ by the afghan government in 2004. Furthermore, literature expert, researcher and historian, late Candidate Academician Mohammad Seddiq Rohi writes about Alama Rashad “Due to his knowledge and experience in history, literature, and word analysis, Professor Rashad was known as ‘Fazil Ustad’ (Learned, Accomplished Master) amongst Afghan Scholars”. [2]

Acad. Prof. Alama Rashad was born in an esteemed family on 14 November 1921 in the historical city of Kandahar, Afghanistan. [3] In 1933, Acad. Rashad graduated from Mashriqi Shuwanžai (Mashriqi High School), then called Da Tijar Maktab (School of Businessman). This school was one of, if not the first, school built in Kandahar province during King Amanullah’s Kingdom of Afghanistan (1919–1929). It received the name ‘Tijar’ (Businessman) as it was funded by some businessman. Alama Rashad learned religious and other common books such as Bustan & Gulistan of Saadi, and Diwan (Collection) of Hafiz from his father, Abdul Ghafoor.

Prof. Rashad was appointed as a teacher and started his official career in 1934. In 1946, Acad. Rashad was elected as the Director of Kandahar City Selection Committee and was promoted to become Deputy Mayor of Kandahar in 1947. In 1948, Alama Rashad went to India to further his education, where he continued his research of Pashtu language, and learned Hindi, Sanskrit and English languages. After conducting a comprehensive research about the history and literature of the Pashtuns in India, he wrote the books of Lodī Puṣhtānạh (Lodi Pashtuns), and Suri Puṣhtānạh (Suri Pashtuns) while there. He was also appointed to become the first teacher of Pashtu language in Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India.

Acad. Prof. Alama Rashad returned to Afghanistan in 1951 and joined the Wĭsh Žalmiyán (the Awakened Youth) movement in 1952. The Wĭsh Žalmiyán movement was the first party based on the modern democratic principles in Afghanistan history, to which he referred “I was a Wĭsh Žalmai as I am still and will be a Wĭsh Žalmai”. [4] During this year, he also ran a successful campaign and won the election to become a Member of Parliament from Kandahar province, but the then Governor of Kandahar, Abdul Ghani Khan, did not allow for this to happen based on his opposing political affiliations. In 1957, Alama Shakoor became a member of the Pashtu Academy where he was later promoted to become the Assistant Director.

In the same year, Rashad became a professor of Pashtu language at the Faculty of Language & Literature at Kabul University. He was also appointed as a Pashtu language teacher in the Institute of Eastern Research in St. Petersburg (previously known as Lenin Grad) in 1961. After teaching for a period of two and a half years in Moscow, the capital of Russia, Alama Rashad moved back to Kabul and continued as a professor in the Faculty of Language & Literature at Kabul University, where he became the Chief of the Pashtu Department in 1963. [5]

PROF. ALAMA RASHAD IN INDIA

ACCOMPLISHMENTS OF ACAD. PROF. ALAMA RASHAD

Throughout the course of his lifetime, Acad. Prof. Alama Rashad continuously met high standards of academia, allowing him to become one of the most renowned and respected Afghan scholars. He started showcasing high levels of academia from an incredibly young age, learning how to read religious and other common books when he was only five years old. Furthermore, at the age of 12 years, Alama Rashad graduated from Mashriqi High School with the highest marks of his cohort. He went on to be appointed as a teacher and start his official career in his own school of graduation at just 13 years of age, hence being referred to as Kūchnai Moallim (Small, or Little Teacher). Alama Rashad was also a commendable poet by the age of 13 years, and at 17 years of age, his well conducted research had been published in the historical Journal of Tolo-e-Afghan (Rise of the Afghan) in 1941.

In addition to his own native and mother tongue of Pashtu, Alama Rashad was also fluent in Dari, Urdu, Hindi, Sanskrit, English, Arabic and Russian languages. He has written and translated books to or from all these languages. Additionally, Alama Rashad had a sound knowledge of the Japanese and Turkish languages. This helped him further his academic career as he went to become a professor of the Pashtu language at Kabul University. Alama was also a professional member of the Pashtu Academy, of which he later went on to become the Assistant Director. Hence, due to these accomplishments, he became known as Fazil Ustad amongst Afghan people and scholars. Alama Rashad was also the first Afghan scholar and professor to teach Pashtu language at the Institute of Eastern Research in St. Petersburg in Moscow, the capital of Russia, and at Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, the capital of India. He was later given the honorary title of Alama prior to Alama being honored with the scientific rank of Academician by the afghan government, due to these efforts in the fields of Arts, Science, Philosophy, History and Literature.

NATIONAL & INTERNATIONAL RESPECT OF ACAD. PROF. ALAMA RASHAD

Accomplished Master Acad. Prof. Alama Rashad was a world travelled Afghan scholar who had travelled to Asia, Africa, Europe, and America. All Alama’s travels were formal and scientific travels which included Japan, United States of America, Russia, India, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Iran, Pakistan, and some other countries. He also wrote travel logs about Yemen, Japan, and America when he travelled to these countries that are yet to be published. In addition, his poems and articles were published by alias names, for security reasons, in independent newspapers in America, Norway, Germany, India, Pakistan as well as other regional and international places.

Prof. Khaliq Rashid, who previously taught in the Faculty of Language and Literature of Kabul University explains “as I have previously written in an article, published in Gorbat Magazine; in a Sanskrit and Hindi language international conference in Brazil, in which I was also one of the participants, where Hindi and Sanskrit scholars from around the world were being discussed. I too had a chance to talk about Alama Rashad for about 25 minutes through ‘Skype’ with a picture of Alama being displayed on the screen.” [6] Professor Rashid who is currently the headteacher of Pashtu language in Jawaharlal Nehru University in New Delhi, India, since around 1990 adds “When I finished my article – thousand plus conference members uploaded Acad. Prof. Alama Rashad by clapping their hands, and the Chairman of the conference said; would you agree with me, for us to have found, after ‘Alberuni’, another great scholar and Mahaguru (supreme teacher) in Afghanistan? And the term Mahaguru (supreme teacher) repeated itself from around the conference room again and again.” [7]

Meanwhile, Alama Rashad never compromised his basic principles of logic and reason, hence, he stays a very respectful scholar of Afghanistan. He also had a comprehensive knowledge and profound understanding of his country and his people. He believed that all tribes of Afghan society must get united instead of separation of tribalism and worked hard for National Unity of Afghan dignity. His thoughts were equally acknowledged and appreciated by the Afghan dignitaries. So much so, when Alama was only a young student in his hometown of Kandahar, the then ruler of Afghanistan (1919-1929), King Amanullah Khan (1892-1961), visited him in his school and told him “I am only here to see you”. [8]

Acad. Prof. Alama Rashad was living in a small house with a larger guest room in the northern side of Kabul, the capital city of Afghanistan. Local and regional scholars, writers, intellectuals, as well as Western scholars and diplomats, alongside his students, family and friends were the regular and everyday guests of his guest room to seek Alama’s social, cultural, and political advice. Renowned contemporary Afghan author, historian, and researcher Candidate Academician Mohammad Azam Sistani writes about Alama Rashad

“Academician Professor Rashad, one of the greatest scientific and cultural personalities, was an Afghan Scholar, Researcher, Author, Poet, Historian, Linguistic, Sociologist and Politician of the 20th and early 21st century Afghanistan”. [9]

Alama Rashad also had a research-based awareness of the history of his country, the different levels of his society as he had scientific journeys to major and historical cities of his homeland. This profound knowledge of his country and its geography and his society and its people greatly benefited him in his writings of authorship and poetry. This positive influence is clearly obvious even just from the following four lines of his poetry;

Shihab’s Headstone

This was noted as a speech on the headstone of a grave

Where Muhammad of Ghor or Shihab Ghurid was buried

“Death is better with the sword in the battlefield of war

Than to live a life with single ridicule of an opponent.” [10]

This tall Afghan with common Kandahari features of broad shoulders, unique eyes, pointed nose and a great sense of hospitality was a patriot. He always loved to stay in his hometown Kandahar and in the capital city of his country, Kabul, in Afghanistan. Rashad died on 1 December 2004 in Kabul, Afghanistan, and he was buried in the Campus of Kandahar University in the city of Kandahar, Afghanistan. [11] He lived in his country till the last day of his life, as he had said;

“Everyone loves their country, but I love my country to death, I live in my country and will die in my country”. [12]

When Alama died, due to his illness, at the age of 84, a book was published under the name of Personality Forever in 2005, arranged by Gharzai Khwakhuzhi. This book is comprised of condolences, including a condolence massage from the then President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, his excellency Hamid Karzai, the then Governor of Kandahar, Eng. Mohammad Yousef Pashtun, and the last King of Afghanistan, Father of the Nation Mohammed Zahir Shah (1933 – 1973).

A commemoration gathering in the Pacha Khan Academic Research Center of Kandahar University was held on the 12th anniversary of Acad. Prof. Alama Rashad in 2017. The speaking panel of this gathering included several renowned Afghan scholars and political dignitaries. This included former deputy minister at the Ministry of Borders and Tribal Affairs in Afghanistan, author, poet and current Afghan Ambassador to Iran, Abdul Ghafoor Liwal, former Afghan Ambassador to India, Shaida Mohammad Abdali, the then Cultural Deputy Minister Prof. Mohammad Rasul Bawary, the then Afghan Minister for Higher Education Dr. Farida Momand, and the current Afghan President Dr. Mohammad Ashraf Ghani. Part of his excellency Dr. Ghani’s message to the gathering included “Professor Rashad was that author, scholar, and teacher of our time who raised and trained our youth with national and Afghan mentality through his historical, cultural, literal, linguistic and socialistic writings”. [13] The articles read by the Afghan authors and the messages sent by the Afghan dignitaries were also published as a collection of articles in 2017, under the name of Commemoration of Academician Professor Abdul Shakoor Rashad.

PUBLICATIONS

Learned & Accomplished Master Acad. Prof. Alama Rashad was a prolific Afghan author, poet, linguistic and historian with more than seventy (70) published books and around fifty (50) books that are yet to be published.

PUBLISHED WORK

                A. BIOGRAPHIES:

    1. Pashtun Poets (Pushtāna Shua’ara), 3rd vol, 1958.
    2. Commemoration of Benawa (Da Benawa Yaad), 2005.
    3. The Heroines (Da Karnamoo Mermanĭ), 2005.
    4. The Holy Tombs of Kandahar (Da Kandahar Ziaratoonā), 2005.
    5. Orientalists (Khatĭž Pohaan; Mustashreqeen), 2016.
اړوند پوسټونه
Orientalists (Khatĭž Pohaan; Mustashreqeen), 2016.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Legends of Ahmad Shah Durrani’s Era (Da Ahmad Shahi Asār Numyaali), 2016.

      B. DICTIONARIES:

  1. Dictionary of Pate Khazānā (Da Pate Khazāni Farhang), 1983.
  2. The Words of Khayr al-Bayān (Da Khayr al-Bayān Lughatunā), 1997.
  3. Lexical Research (Lughawi Šĭŕanā), 2008.
  4. School Dictionary (Maktabi Qamus), 2015.

      C. GEOGRAPHY:

  1. Collection of Interviews with Allama Rashad about the Historical Geography of Afghanistan (Da Afghanistan Da Tarikhi Geographié Pa Aŕa Da Allamā Rashad Sara Da Marako Tulgā), 2004.
  2. Regional Geography (Da Simĭ Jughrafyā), 2005.
  3. Geographical Notes (Jughrafiaye Yadashtunā), 2010.

      D. HISTORY:

  1. Lodi Pashtuns (Lodī Puṣhtānạ), 1958.

  1. Delhi At the Times of Pashtun Rulers (Delhi Da Pashtano Pa Wakht Ki), 1960.
  2. A Few Words on Afghanistan & British-India (Par Afghanistan Aw Britanavi-Hind Baandé Šu Khabari), 1982.
  3. Notes On Kandahar (Da Kandahar Yadashtunā), 2007.

      E. POETRY:

  1. Heart’s-blood (Da Zŕa Wĭni), 1991.
  2. Infidel Monarchy or Communist Monarchy (Mulhed Shahi Ya Communist Shahi), 1978 – 1992.
  3. Partisan Monarchy (Tanzeem Shahi), 1992 – 1996.
  4. Hard Days Of/On Afghanistan (Da Afghanistan Badi Wraži), 1994.
  5. Burning Girl (Loolapa Peghlā), 1995.
  6. Blood-thirsty Kourosh (Kourosh Khoon Ashaam), 2000.
  7. The Sorrow of the Pashtuns (Da Pashtāno Ghamizā), 2001.
  8. American Rage (Khashmedalaé Amrica), 2002.
  9. Talib Monarchy (Talib Shahi), 2001 – 2003.
  10. A Village of Wedding Became Karbala (Da Wadā Kalai Karbala Su), 2003.
  11. Afghanistan Became a Shower of Warm Blood (Da Tawdo Wino Hamaam Afghanistan Su), 2003.
  12. Bright Tears (Raňee Oshki), 2005.
  13. Bunch of Flowers (Da Gulaano Geedāy), 2005.

      F. RESEARCH:

  1. Hindi Poetry of Amir Khusrau Dehlavi (Da Amīr Khusrau Dehlavī Hindi Shairi), 1974.
  2. Three Articles on Khayr al-Bayān’s Preface (Da Khayr al-Bayān Pa Sariza Dre Maqaalé), 1974.
  3. Dawlat Lawāṇay’s Collection (Da Dawlat Lawāṇay dīwān), 1974.
  4. Wasil Rōshān’s Collection (Da Wasil Rōshān dīwān), 1974.
  5. Pashtu words in the Pāṇini Ashtadhyayi (Pāṇini Ashtadhyayi Aw Pa Hagha Ki Pashtu Lughtunā), 1975.
  6. Gitanjali; Collection of poems by Rabindranath Tagore (Gitanjali; Da Rabindranath Tagore Asar), 1975.
  7. Preface on Golden State Dictionary (Da Golden State Da Farhang Sariza), 1977.
  8. Preface on Gulshan-i-roh in 192 pgs (Da Gulshan-i-roh Sariza Pa 192 Makhono Ki), 1977.
  9. Written explanations on the poems of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Da Ahmad Shah Baba Da Pashtu Ash’aaro Sharhā), 1978.
  10. A selection of poems from the Collection of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Da Ahmad Shah Baba Da dīwān Ghurchān), 1978.
  11. History of Pashtu phonetics in 74 pgs (Da Pashtu Tajweedono Tarikhchā Pa 74 Makhono Ki), 1980.
  12. The Benefits of Faqir-ul-lah (Fawayedé Faqir-ul-lah), 1980.
  13. Preface on the Graceful names of God (Da Pashtu Asma-ul-Husna Sariza), 1980.
  14. Mya Omar of Tŝamkani (Da Tŝamkāno Mya Omar),
  15. Nisab ul Sabyan (Nisab-ul-sabyan), 1982.
  16. Preface & Wordlist on Haji Jumma Barakzai’s collection (Da Haji Jumma Barakzi Da Dīwān Sariza Aw Lughtuna), 1982.
  17. About the Akbari Zafarnāma & It’s Poet (Dar Baraé Zafarnāmaé Akbari Wa Nazim Aan), 1986.
  18. Ten Articles (Las Maqaalé), 1988.
  19. Public Opinion on the Hero of Panipat the Great Ahamad Shah Abdali (Da Panipat Qahraman Loy Ahmad Shah Baba Da Khalko Lā Nazarā), 1991.
  20. Mistakes (Teerwatanĭ), 2004.
  21. Literary Prose (Adābi Nasrunā), 2005.
  22. Ghalib Jang Nawab Ahmad Khan Bangash (Ghalib Jang Nawab Ahmad Khan Bangash), 2006.
  23. Hafiz-ul-Mulk Hafiz Rahmat Khan Baŕižai & His Family (Hafiz-ul-Mulk Hafiz Rahmat Khan Baŕižai Aw Da Haghā Kuranai), 2006.
  24. Caliph Abu Bark Siddiq (Ḥaz̤rat Abū Bakr Ṣiddīq), 2006.
  25. The National Hero, Ghazi Wazir Mohammad Akbar Khan (Mili Atal Ghazi Wazir Mohammad Akbar Khan), 2006.

  1. Babu Jan’s Selections in Gulshan-i-roh are not Prose (Pa Gulshan-i-roh Ki Da Baabu Jan Muntākhabaat Nasār Na Dĭ), 2006.
  2. Shahnameh of Ahmad Shah Abdali (Ahmadshahi Shahnameh), 2008.
  3. Prosodic system in Pashtu prose (Pa Pashtu Názám ki Uroozi System), 2008.
  4. Old Alphabet of Pashtu (Da Pashtu Pukhwanai Alifbaa), 2008.
  5. Amin-ul-Mulk Gul Mohammad Khan Ghoryakhel Babéŕ & His Family (Amin-ul-Mulk Gul Mohammad Khan Ghoryakhel Babéŕ Aw Da Hagha Koranai), 2010.
  6. Guidance to Ahmad Shah Abdali’s Book(s) (Da Ahmad Shah Baba Kitaabshūd), 2013.
  7. Forty Hadith of Prophet Mohammad peace be upon him (Da Nabi Kareem sallallahu alaihi wasallam Šalweesht Hadeesooná), 2016.
  8. Tafsir of Pashtu (Pashtu Tafsir), 2016.

      G. TEXTBOOKS:

  1. Pashtu Textbook for Grade 11 (Da Yawolāsām Tulgai Pashtu Qir’at), 1961.
  2. Pashtu Textbook for Grade 12 (Da Dwolāsām Tulgai Pashtu Qir’at), 1961.
  3. Innovative (Badi), 1980.

      H. TRANSLATIONS:

  1. Three Stories of Leo Tolstoy (Da Leo Tolstoy Dre Nakloonā), 1961.
  2. Jaj; Collection of poems by Rabindranath Tagore (Jaj; Da Rabindranath Tagore Asar), 1975.
  3. Letter exits (Makhārij al-ḥurūf), 1980.
  4. The Bloody Event of Qissa Khwani (Da Qissa Khwani Khunari Pishā), 1988.
  5. Subhas Chandra Bose in Afghanistan (Subhas Chandra Bose Pa Afghanistan Ki), 1989.
  6. Woman with no Hands (Bé Lasoo Shaža), 2004.

      UNPUBLISHED WORK:

  • Alif Naame (Alaf Naaméá), 85 pgs.
  • An aux. Word used for questions (Aya?), 500 pgs.
  • Arabic Grammar (Arabi Grammar), 120 pgs.
  • Debate in Pashtu (Pa Pashtu Ki Munaazirá), 75 pgs.
  • Vol 2 of Pate Khazāna’s dictionary (Da Pate Khazāni Farhang Dwahām Tūk), 400 pgs.
  • Clerks of Pashtu Books (Da Pashtu Kitaabo Kaatébaan), 120 pgs.
  • Critique (Na’qād), 500 pgs.
  • Family Trees (Nasabi Shajaree), 6 vols; 1st 270 pgs, 2nd 90 pgs, 3rd 180 pgs, 4th & 5th 320 pgs.
  • Five books of Different Memorandums (Pinžá Kitaaboonā Da Mukhtalifu Yadashtuno), 600 pgs.
  • Five Poem Collections (Pĭnža Shé’ri Toulgi), 5 vols; 1st 62 pgs, 2nd 50 pgs, 3rd 126 pgs, 4th 62 pgs, 5th 180 pgs.
  • Information about the Japanese language and grammar (Da Jappani Zhabi Grammmar Aw Ma’lumaat), 2 vols; 1st 130 pgs, 2nd 165 pgs.
  • Gulshan-i-roh’s Dictionary (Da Gulshan-i-roh Lūghāt Naamā), 800 pgs.
  • Kandahar’s Historical Notes (Da Kandahar Tarikhi Yadashtunā), 2 vols.
  • Khushal Khan’s Memorandum (Da Khushal Khan Yaad), 100 pgs.
  • Khushal’s Dictionary (Da Khus’haal Farhang), 7 vols; 1st 400 pgs, 2nd 260 pgs, 3rd 280 pgs, 4th 480 pgs, 5th 520 pgs, 6th 320 pgs, 7th
  • Literature Dictionary (Adabi Qamoos), 6 vols; 1st 1200 pgs, 2nd 630 pgs, 3rd 1250 pgs, 4th 600, 5th 650 pgs, 6th 120 pgs.
  • Literature styles or Methodology (Sab’k-pezhandáná), 200 pgs.
  • Melodies of Love (Da Muhá’bbat Naghmee), 150 pgs.
  • Martyr Sardar Mohammad Dawood Kahan (Sardar Mohammad Dawood Khan Shahid).
  • Notes on the Pashtun clans & tribes (Da Qawmono Aw Qabayalo Pa Baab Yadashtuná), 670 pgs.
  • Notes on Sociology (Da Sociology Pa Aŕa Yadashtunā), 120 pgs.
  • Old Persian (Zŕā Faŕsi), 50 pgs.
  • Pashtu Words in Old Persian, Pahlavi & Avestan (Pa Zŕā Faŕsi, Pahlavi Aw Avesta Ki Pashtu Kalimĭ), 380 pgs.
  • Pashtun Authors (Pashtana Musnifein), in 3 vols.
  • Pashtun Poets in Urdu (Pushtana Shua’ara Pa Urdu Ki), 850 pgs.
  • Pashtun Poets in Farsi (Pushtana Shua’ara Pa Farsi Ki), 700 pgs.
  • Pashtun Poets in Arabic (Pushtana Shua’ara Pa Arabi Ki).
  • Pedigrees of ṭarīqah (Da Tariqat Shajaree), 200 pgs.
  • Poem kinds in Pashtu (Pa Pashtu Ki Da Názám Dawlooná), 290 pgs.
  • Prosodic (Urooz), 4 vols; 1st 1130 pgs, 2nd 368 pgs, 3rd 440 pgs, 4th 95 pgs.
  • Renown Pashtuns (Pashtaanā Mashaahér), in 3 vols.
  • Some Words about Literature (Žĭni Adabi Khábári), 200 pgs.
  • Suri Pashtuns (Suri Pashtaaná), 400 pgs.
  • Suspensions (Ta’liqaat), 60 pgs.
  • The Baŕiži Pashtuns (Baŕižai Pashtaaná), 120 pgs.
  • The Branch of Rhetoric; rhetoric Meaning (Ma’ani), 650 pgs.
  • The grammar of Russian Language (Da Russi Zhabi Grammar), 2 vol; 1st 160 pgs, 2nd 170 pgs.
  • The grammar of Sanskrit Language (Da Snskrit Zhabi Grammar), 740 pgs.
  • The Textbooks of Local Schools in Kandahar (Da Kandahar Da Madrasoo Tadrisi Nésaab), 400 pgs.
  • Travel Log about America (Da America Safarnaamá), 100 pgs.
  • Travel Log about Japan (Da Japan Safarnaamá), 90 pgs.
  • Travel Log about Yemen (Da Yemen Safarnaamá), 135 pgs.
  • Tulip (La’alā), 150 pgs.
  • Victor Ayub Khan (Ghazi Ayub Khan).
  • Victor King Amanullah (Amanullah Shah Ghazi).
  • 100 Proverbs in Seven Languages (Sāl Matalā Pa Owāo Zhābo), 4 vols.
  • 2000 Russian Proverbs in Pashtu Language (Dwa Zarā Russi Mātāloonā Pa Pashtu Zhābā), 4 vols; 1st 365 pgs, 2nd 450 pgs, 3rd 420 pgs, 4th 425 pgs.
  • Unfinished Meeting (Nĭm Déed).

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Sincere thanks and regards to Associated Professor Shershah Rashad, Vice Chancellor of Academic Affairs in Kandahar University, author Matiullah Rohyal, writer Abdul Zahir Srak, and last but not the least Sardar Wali Pashtonzoy. Without the constant support and cooperation of all these individuals, this work would not have been possible.

      REFERENCES

  1. Bawary, R. Alama Rashad in the field of history writing. Mundigak [internet]. 2020 Feb [cited 2021 Jan 10]. Available [in Pashtu] from: Alama Rashad in the field of history writing https://mundigak.com
  2. Rashad, T. Academician Professor Abdul Shakoor Rashad. Lekwal [internet]. 2006 Jun 20 [cited 2020 Nov 25]. Available from: https://web.archive.org/web/20080828033637/http://lekwal.com/rashad/asar.shtml
  3. Benawa, AR. Contemporary Writers. 2nd Kabul; 1961. 458 p.
  4. Ibid.
  5. Sistani, A. Academician Rashad; A Great Scholar of the Twentieth century’ Afghanistan. Afghan German Online [internet]. 2004 Dec 4 [cited 2021 Jan 10]; [about 7 p.]. Available from: http://www.afghan-german.net/upload/Tahlilha_PDF/sistani_reshad.pdf
  6. The writer of the article spoke to Alama Rashad’s son, Shirshah Rashad who quoted Prof. Khaliq Rashid’s words.
  7. Ibid.
  8. Oria, N. Alama Abdul Shakoor Rashad. Afghan German Online [internet]. 2019 Mar 25 [cited 2021 Jan 10]; [about 7 p.]. Available from: http://www.afghan-german.net/upload/Tahlilha_PDF/lemar_e_alama_shokor_reshad.pdf
  9. Sistani, A. Commemorating the Thirteenth Anniversary of Academician Rashad Kandahari. Afghan German Online [internet]. 2017 Dec 4 [cited 2021 Jan 12]; [about 6p.]. Available from: http://www.afghan-german.net/upload/Tahlilha_PDF/a_sistani_yadnama_e_Allama_Rashad.pdf
  10. Benawa, AR. Contemporary Writers. 2nd Kabul; 1961. 472 p.
  11. Khwakhuzhi, G. Peronality Forever. Kabul; 2005. 15 p.
  12. Ibid.
  13. Commemoration of Academician Professor Abdul Shakoor Rashad (Collection of articles). Kandahar: Kandahar University; 2017.

H. SHAGHASI

FEBRUARY 10, 2021, CANBERRA, AUSTRALIA

۱ نظر
  1. رشید وايي

    ګران شاه غاسي صاحب ته سلامونه او درناوی.
    مقاله مې ولوسته خدای دې توفیق درکړي چې په همدغه کرښه مو خپلو هڅو ته دوام ورکړئ. دایوښه او په زړه پورې پيل دی.غواړم څوټکي درته ولیکم.
    ۱-Pashto باید ولیکو نه pashtu
    ۲- استاد رشاد ته اکادیمسني رتبه دوخت حکو مت دعلومو اکادمۍ له خوا ورکړه شوه.خو دده غوښتنه نه وه.
    ۳- دعلامه ویاړ استاد ته دخلکو او پوهانو له خوا دیوې لوېې ملي غونډې په ترڅ کې په جلا ل اباد کې ورکړشو.
    ۴-علامه رشاد دهند په نهرو پوهنتون کې هم دپښتوژبې لومړنی استاد و.
    ۵- استاد دطالبانو په واکمنۍ کې وویل: زه ویښ زلمی وم یم او وم به.دا باید روښانه وویل شي.
    ۶-ځينې تکراري تکراري پاراګرافونه او یادونې اضافي دي.
    بس نوره مقاله په زړه پورې ده دلا بریو هیله درته کوم.
    بریالی اوسې.
    رشید

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