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Origins of the Qarluq tribe

Written by: Sayed Abdul momin (Sayed)

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In different historical periods of our country, the colorful tribes of this country have given pride and honor to this country. One of those great and proud tribes is the Afghan Turks. Which has given the pride of the Ghaznavid, Khwarizm, and Timurid empires to the geography of Afghanistan. One of these Turkish tribes is called Qarlaq, which still resides in the northern provinces of Afghanistan (Takhar, Kunduz, Faryab, and Badakhshan). The greatest Sultan and conqueror of our history, Sultan Mahmud Ghaznavi, was also one of the Qarlaq Turks by his father and the Ghalzai of Zabul by his mother. The descriptions of the Qarlaq tribe can be seen in many Persian poems because of their exquisiteness, magnetic figure, and attractive face. Although the tribe is Turkish But now they have lost their native Turkish language and speak a specific Turkish dialect of Dari. Because their faces and language are similar to those of another major ethnic group of Afghanistan (the Hazaras) in the country, some circles have linked their identities to the Hazaras, either out of ignorance or for a specific biased purpose. In this research paper, I will bring pieces of evidence about the historical roots of this great ethnic tribe, their language, their arrival in Afghanistan, their identity, and the glories that make this country proud. Finally, we will include some of the poems that mention Khalkh or Qarlaq.
These all will disavow the bogus theory which states that Qarluqs are Hazaras.

Written by: Sayed Abdul momin (Sayed)
Special thanks to: Haji ahmad Salar (Qarluq)


(Or: خَرلُخ ؛ خَلَخ) Turkic people, one of the great Turkestan tribes, inhabited by the Ili and Cho rivers in the basin, between the Balkhash rivers (in Kazakhstan) and Isikkul (in Kyrgyzstan). After the victory of the great Ziad bin Saleh over the forces of Cao Sin, the Chinese chief, and the Turks, the pro-Turkic government of China, crossed the Eli River and the Balkhash River into the Cho River Basin and were expelled from Ghazan, their lands. Occupied. The Qarlaq was one of the three largest groups of Turks in the early Islamic period and settled on land between China and the Caspian Sea. The middle part of this land, ie the middle basin of the Sihon River, to the territory of the Turks of Taghzaghaz, belonged to Qarlaqha. The Muslim caravans reached the land of Kyrgyzstan and the upper reaches of the Yenisei River basin after passing through the Middle East.
The city of Taraz (Talas, Jambul) in the 3rd century BC, the capital of the Christian state of Nasturia, was a religion. This city was occupied by Amir Ismail Samani and the great church of the city was converted into a mosque and many of the Qarlaqans converted to Islam. The Qarlaqans, like most other Turks, except for Ghazan, were exposed to the influence of Iranian elements. Khan Qarlaqa was entitled Yabgu / Begho. These were the citizens of the Turkestan state of Turkestan. Arsalan Hakim Qarlaqaha, who had been the ruler of the Qaraqhani dynasty before the fall of this dynasty, took over the kingdom of Kharazmshah in Astana, in obedience to the Mongols, and on behalf of Genghis Khan took the title of Sartakti, meaning Tajik. They held the company in the possession of Iran. Amir Hindujaq, the leader of the Tomani compound of Uyghurs, Qarluqas, Turkmens, and Kashgaris, was executed by Bahdast Amir Raghun, the second governor of Mongol Iran, at the gates of Tus. In Persian literature, Qarlaq is known for its fragrant musk, and its beauticians are known for their dexterity and charm.

Origins of the Qarluq tribe
About the origins of this nation, we must first summarize the origin of the Turkic race.
In the book Majma ‘al-Tawarikh by Rashid al-Din Fazlullah Hamdani (645-718) it is pointed out that in the history of Islam and also the Torah of the children of Israel it is narrated that Prophet Noah had three sons, one Ham, one Shem and one Japheth who was of Arab and Persian descent. To Sam Mirsad and the Turks of Japheth to the Turks and Abu Bajja Khan (Abul Jah).
After Japheth is the son of Deb Baqvi, who had four sons. For the same reason, some of the uncles and aunts are considered to be skeptics and opponents. As long as there is a difference between them, and after years of war, Oghuz finally succeeds, and so do all the countries from Talas and Wasim to Bukhara.

It is the same with naming tribes and ethnic groups. Here is what we read in the History Chronicles: “In the history and stories of the tribes of Oghuz, there are twenty-four divisions of the children and their descendants, and some of the brothers and sisters who were united with them. . ”
One of them is the Qarakhan who came into the world after him, in the name of Oghuz, who was an individual, devout and pious. For the same reason, some of the uncles and aunts are considered to be skeptics and opponents. As long as there is a difference between them, and after years of war, Oghuz finally succeeds, and so do all the countries from Talas and Wasim to Bukhara.
It is the same with naming tribes and ethnic groups. Here is what we read in the History Chronicles: “In the history and stories of the tribes of Oghuz, there are twenty-four divisions of the children and their descendants, and some of the brothers and sisters who were united with them.

Of course, in this book, the reason for the naming of each of these tribes is explained to Oghuz. The path to the great mountain was reached and the great snow fell and some houses were violated because of the rain. This generation has been created. “

From this story, through all the sources of the inhabitants of this nation and other Turkic tribes, the same borders of Central Asia and the mainland are called Turkestan.
“Turkestan is a region in Asia that is bounded on the north by Siberia, on the west by the Caspian Sea, on the south by Afghanistan, India and Tibet, and on the east by Mongolia.” Enter the dictionary
The main site of the Qarlaq tribe is also located in Turkestan and the south of the Tarim River, in the north of which the Uyghur people live. The territory of Turkestan is now part of the province of Xinjiang, China.
This is one of the areas where the Turks have migrated for a long time and have moved to other areas. In a book on the history of the ancient Turks, Professor Zahtabi writes about these migrations as follows:: “Historical evidence is that the migration of Turkic peoples to the Middle East, including the Iranian plateau, began thousands of years ago.” For example, Ghias-ud-Din Ghaybullah from the four migrations of Turks (from Central Asia to the West) who played a role in the composition of the Azerbaijani ethnic group is as follows:

1- The wave of nations Kasi, Mannai, Madi, Kaspi, Albany, and … (Hazara III before Milad)

2- The wave of the people of Kemer, Scotia, Saka, Sarmak, Dundar, etc.

اړوند پوسټونه

3- The wave that was associated with the Union of Huns was “Khazraha, Bulgarha, Qarqaraha, Pachnakha, Awarha, etc.” (half of the first Hazara BC)

4- The wave that was associated with the Seljug-ogoz tribes.

Qarlaq and Qarlaghan, Qarlagh, Qarlig are all different forms of a word and it was a tribe from Atrak in the north and northeast of Transoxiana known for its good form and length, and fit of creation. The first people who converted to Islam were the Qarlaq tribe, They inhabited the Tarbagata Mountains and were the same people who, before converting to Islam, helped the Uyghurs capture the Orakhsun and northern Mongolia regions. They converted to Islam in the third century AH and became neighbors with Ghaznavid and Samani countries.
Gharlaqs are famous in Iranian literature for their fit and beautiful face. This word has been introduced in literature in the form of Kharlkh and then Khalkh. The Turks of Khalkh are mentioned in the poems of Rudaki, Nezami, Hafez, Saadi, and even contemporary poets such as Malek al-Shoarai Bahar and the poems of almost all poets.
An epithet of Qarluqs in Shahnama
One of the titles that the Qarluqs used for their kings is Ilk, which was later called the Karakhani dynasty for this reason. Another title was Yabgo, which was also specific to the Qarluq people. Another title, Qaghan or Khaqan, means king of kings, which, of course, has been used among other tribes as well. The Qarluqs use the word Khan a lot. The word “Khan” is translated in Ghias al-Ghat as “Khan is the title of the kings of Turkestan and Khata is the head of the tribe.
Roots of Qarluqs
The nationality of Qarluq is related to the nationality of the Uyghurs and the Ghazs. This tribe is the main inhabitants of the Qara Airtosh region and the Tarbeh Geta Mountains of the Qarluq Valley, which is located on the western side of the Altai Mountains of Central Asia. These people settled in the fourth century during the time of Albatgin and Shatgin to (Urwa) or modern Ghazni. The name of Ghazni is derived from the name of this people. This nation lived for a long time under the rule of Gok Turks. Later, the Turks overthrew the Gok dynasty and established the Qarakhta’i and Bigu confederations.
The life history of Qarluqs
In the year 664 AD, the name of the lion of Qarluq is mentioned in the Chinese book. The name of the Qarluq tribe first entered history in the inscriptions and inscriptions of the Orkhon plain and the period of the Gok Turk empire. These inscriptions, discovered in the Orkhon Plain in the 19th century, date from the reign of Gok Turks. In the Middle Ages, the union consisted of three clans named Qarluq, Chigel, and Igmah, which were less important under Turkish Kog. They fought many wars, but after the secession of Gok Turks, this dynasty from the 6th to the 8th century AD was able to establish the Karakhanid dynasty with other tribes and rule for about two hundred and thirty-two years. The name of this tribe is mentioned four times in Orkhon inscriptions. The Gok Turks were divided into eastern and western parts in 582 AD, and the Qarluqs settled in the western part. The Eastern Turkiots were destroyed by the Uyghurs in 745 AD and the Western Turkiots by the Qarluqs in 766 AD. From then until 931 AD (315 AH) when the Qarakhani dynasty was formed, all these areas remained in the hands of Qarluqi dynasties.
After taking power, their areas of life became wider and extended to the Gulf of Kyrgyzstan and the Tarim River in eastern Turkmenistan and the cities of Kashgar, Fergana, Khokand, Blasaghon, and Haft Ab (Samirchiyeh) to Dara Rud Cho and Shahr Tal. Was lost. The Turks took control of the kingdom
Eventually, these people, like Genghis Khan, relinquished their political supremacy and came under his rule. There is no other name after them in the history of politics and government. This nation continued to lead a simple and comfortable life in different areas and did not maintain its identity.
History of the birth of Qarluqha in Afghanistan
Thousands of years ago, all the Turko Mughal and Aryan nationalities lived in Asia at a short distance. As the population grew, so did the war on land, hunting for religion, and especially for trade. In the first stages, the Turks and the Mughals united the Caucasian tribes to the south. After that, the Turks, through the Mughal Union, spread to the regions of Southeast Central Asia, the Red River, the Khidr River, and the arid plains. The Samanids had long been engaged in war with the Turks. They include the Turks, the captured Muslims, and the army itself.
The group trained their children to serve in the army and, as they demonstrated their competence, became officers and superiors. The Turks at least gained influence in the army and reached higher positions.
Noah Ibn Nasr Samani (5–6 AH) The fifth Samanid king left slavery in the name of Al-Batagin because of his ability, talent, and intelligence. During the reign of Mansur ibn Noah Samani, in 5-6 AH, the Al-Batagin rebelled and went to Ghazni with his slave (Subagtagin). Geographical life of Qarluqha
Throughout history, they have experienced different places as a place of life. Parts of these geographical locations are Iran, Uzbekistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Syria. Koch Ishan goes to these areas for various political and natural reasons and The main reason for this geographical spread is that this geographical spread has caused the Qarluqa to be separated even though it has a single root. Mahmoud Kashghari is the only person who can tell us about the limits and boundaries of Islam in the land of Turkestan during the Karakhanid period. The same is true of the area where the plains of East Turkestan are located. One of these roads is in the north which leads to Kucha and Turfan. There is another way in the south where the circumcision is lighted. The Tarim River is located at this point. Mahmoud Kashghari explains that the Tarim River passes through Islamic territory and into the Uyghur region and disappears there in Alfzar.
In other parts of the country where the Qarluqs now live, the country of Syria has a Turkish presence in Syria, especially in Aleppo during the Seljuk period. This series succeeded in bringing the vast borders from Turkestan and Transoxiana to Syria under his dominion. Tutush Abu Sa’id Taj al-Dawlah son of Alb Arsalan and brother of King Seljuk was the founder of the Seljuk dynasty of Syria. Most likely, the Qarluq Turks arrived at the same time and continued to immigrate to the central Iranian suburbs with the Seljuk army in Aleppo. For the same reason, in the city of Aleppo, there is a neighborhood called Qarluq and there is an alley called Qarluq Mosque, which is also known as the Qazi Mosque.
The country of Bukhara and Samarkand in Uzbekistan are also among the oldest places where the Qarluq tribes settled. Tomanski’s geographical and anonymous work, which has a history of 372 Q and was discovered in Bukhara , is also known as Tomanski’s version. This means that the Qarluqha had centers in Bukhara. At present Qarluqaha is located in the vicinity of Bukhara and 5 villages are registered under their name. Also in the province of Sarkhan in the province of Uzbekistan is the area called Altin Saiski which is the capital of the city of Qarluq.
Hazara Qarluqs
Another one of the most famous Hazara tribes is the Qarlaq tribe, and in the history of Jahangshah Jowini, the following word Qarlaq has come to mean: He was known for his good looks, height, and proportions of creation. Sheikh Ali, a resident of Qarluq, now says that he has given up his mother tongue and speaks Persian with Hazaragi speech. But the Hazaras of Kunduz, who are also from the Qarluq tribe, are still able to memorize the Turkish language, dialect, dress, and other customs of the Hazaras themselves. «In northern Faizabad, Badakhshan, thousands of Qarluq live their lives in a way that preserves their mother tongue. Uzbeks speak Uzbek and Qarluq speak Turkish. It may be that Hazaras have memorized their mother tongue in some areas. Burhanuddin names only six villages, the largest of which is the Yalaq 3 house, it is clear that it has a Turkish name.
Many Hazaras claim that they built the Mahmud Ghaznavid Empire. This word is correct but only Hazaras were Qarluq. The Hazaras had a united army of several Turks, Mughals, and Aryans.
The Qarluq Turks arrived in Pakistan at the same time as Timur Lang. At the end of Timur’s invasion of India in the year 6–72, Timur sent a detachment of Turks from Qarluq to rule the Hazara region of India. The local people call these Turks Qarluq Turks and their soldiers Hazara Qarluq. Seventy-seven years after Qarluq’s entry into this region, they have succeeded in establishing a series of monarchical governments in the Hazara region of Pakistan, which are still alive and well, and have ruled for more than twenty-two years. Areas of the Qarluq Turks whose roots in Central Asia have been transformed into Hazara-dominated areas, a situation that has been preserved since the early twentieth century.
Afghanistan has a strong so-called civil society foundation that provides scientific, cultural, and educational activities. In the political factions of the Qarqaq minority in the Qarqalq region, unlike other Turkic and Tajik languages, they remain fiercely loyal to the Kabul government, while in southern Afghanistan and its environs, the Persian-speaking minorities or Ghilzai are likely to join Hizb-e-Islami. In northern Afghanistan, where Jamiat-e-Islami or Harakat-e-Islami dominates, they accept their united language. In Turkmen villages and around the Uzbeks, it is natural to speak Uzbek or Turkmen.
There are also villages in Afghanistan called Qarluq Qarq, located between the two cities of Faizabad and Taloqan in northeastern Afghanistan and Badakhshan province. Qarluqahs in Afghanistan, especially in Takhar Kanoni, speak all Turkish Qarluqi dialects, and in Takhar province, Afghanistan, more than seventy-two percent speak this language. Another important point is the different pronunciations recorded in various historical sources from the word Qarluq. The most important change in this chapter related to the effects of the Arabic language after the advent of Islam in Afghanistan is that the word Qarluq in the form of Kharluq and then in the form of Ma’rib merged into the Khulukh.

Asia in 600, showing the location of the Karluk tribes

History and Identity of Qarluq Turks
(The Qarlaq tribe is said to be the most attractive race among the Turks.)
غارلیق یا قارلق:
Qarlaq / Gharlaq is originally a Turkish word meaning “people living in icy areas” or “snowmen”. In some traditions, these people in ancient times were engaged in livestock and cattle and lived in areas that are often called lilies because they are often green and covered with snow in winter.
(The word qarlaq is still used and in Turkish qar means ice)
The word Qarlaq can be traced back to the 5th century AD books and the sources of the Gok Turk Empire that ruled from the 6th to the 8th century AD, but the word Qarlaq is said to be even more conservative.
If we talk about BC, we find mention of it in the story of Oghuz Khan and according to the story called “Oghuznameh” thousands of years old, the name of Qarlaq is Oghuz Khan Zulqarnain (as mentioned in the Qur’an) kept it to himself.
Oghuz Khan and Qarlaq:
According to this story, Oghuz Khan gathered all the Mughals (Mongolia), Tatarstan, and Qara Khatai Turks, formed a great army, and set out with the intention of spreading monotheism in the world. Recognized. Oghuz Khan then conquered Tashkent, Saram, and sent his sons on a campaign to Fergana who conquered the city after a six-month siege and all the population of the city believed in Allah.
Oghuz Khan appointed rulers in all the conquered kingdoms and left Bukhara for Balkh. After the conquest of Balkh, severe winters started in the Ghor area and all areas were covered with snow Reason left behind.
Winter is over and spring is here. When Oghuz Khan inspected his Lashkar, the number appeared to be low. A few days had passed when a detachment of Sipah, trapped in the snow, arrived at Khan’s service.
When asked why he was late, he gave the excuse that “we were stuck in the hills and during that time there was heavy snow and storm which forced us to stop and stay behind. During this time our horses, The camels also died in large numbers and we arrived when the weather improved. ”
After hearing this, Oghuz Khan ordered that from now on they should be called Qarlaq or Gharlaq (snowmen), and later the same title was used for them.
Oghuz Khan then conquered Kabul and Ghazni and the Indian campaign began in which Khan organized the Sipah and invaded Kashmir. The ruler of Kashmir was called Yaghma Khan. According to the Oghuznama, Kashmir had very high mountains and rivers. Which greatly benefited Yaghma Khan and the Kashmir Sipah.
Oghuz Khan conquered Kashmir after a year of fierce fighting and Yaghma Khan was killed. He later spent two years in Kashmir and was appointed as a ruler there.
The Qarluq Turks converted to Islam in the third century AH.
The word Qarlaq can be traced back to ancient “blood” books and sources in the great “Gog Turk” empire that ruled from the sixth to the eighth centuries AD. These books were discovered in the ninth century AH.
The Qarluq Turks played an important role in the establishment and stability of the following empires.
1: Gok Turk Empire (5th to 8th Century AD)
2: Qara Khani Empire which ruled for 232 years
3: The Ghaznavid Empire which ruled for 224 years
4: The Seljuk Empire which ruled for 260 years
5: Timurid Empire ruled for 134 years.
Titles of the Qarlaq kings:
Qarlaq kings and chiefs
The following titles are listed in the previous history of
1: Elk (Elk Khan)
2: Yabghur
3: Qagan / Kagan
4: Khaqan

1: Iran: A group of Qarluq Turks migrated to Iran during the reign of Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan.
Syria / Syria: Qarlaq moved there after the conquest of Anatolia during the reigns of the great Seljuk Sultan Alp Arslan and Malik Shah Seljuk (1071), and there is still a mosque in the Syrian city of Aleppo named Qarlaq It was built by Saif al-Din Ibn Baktamar, the ruler of Aleppo.
3: Pakistan: The migration and population of the Qarlaq Turks in Pakistan are related to the Turkish ruler Amir Timur. After the conquest of India by Amir Timur in the years 99-1398, a detachment of Sipah consisting of Qarlaq Turks left as its representative in India. The locals knew him as Turkan Qarlaq. The area in which they settled was later called Hazara and their descendants still exist.
Over seventy years the Qarlaq Turks were able to form an independent regional government or government and ruled Kashmir and Hazara region under the name of Hazara Qarlaq for more than two centuries (1472-1703). The Qarlaq Turks from Central Asia lost both their kingdom and language in the eighteenth century, but their descendants are still preserved and proudly bear the Turkish title with their names.
4: Uzbekistan: Qarluq Turks live in 23 districts of Bukhara and Samarkand and maintain their identity. Also near the Sir River is a town called Altin Saiski, whose capital is Qarlaq.
5: Afghanistan: The Qarlaq Turks, who believed in the third century AH, later played a key role in the formation of the Ghaznavid Empire and are present in many provinces of present-day Afghanistan. Most of them have forgotten their Turkish language and have adopted Persian / Dari as their medium of communication. However, Qarlaks of Takhar Province still speak Turkish.
6: China: The Qarluq Turks made China a region of residence for many periods and there is still a large population of Qarluq Turks.
After the Genghis Khan and Mughal invasions, the Qarlaq Turks started migrating and the world was shattered.
Famous poems which have mentioned Khulkh or Khalkha
I will give thousands of Khulkhi bondwomen
Who is the sheen of the crown with propitiousness
O Turk Mir, sedition of Baghma and Khalkha
You are both, the musk of the chignon and have a complexion like a moon
Farrokhi Sistani

In the goodness, Khulukhi Turks are gild edged
They are filled with musk and have figures like wires
Farrokhi Sistani
Both Khulukhi and Khatai have
The visage that can inflame the world
Nizami Ganjawi
In the air lies the sweetness like Kawsar
Beside the Tigris, of beauteous Khalkhs
In the color of gorgeous Khulukhi in the garden
Among the green flags become red flowers
Good luck with resplended Khulukhs
You threw the cup of Kaykhosrow seeking infidelity
The whip reached the Tzyan and Khulkh
Disappeared in disgrace from Kian.
Two hundred cedars from China and Khulkh
Violet hairs, daffodils like eyes, and exquisite visage
(Weiss and Ramin).
That lion-hearted that no one is brave like him
Another hero in the land of Khulkh.
I will be so ecstatic if she talks to me
She will make this place Khulkh by spreading her fragrance
What is the smell that blew from the people?
What a way to get rid of the loot.

What stunning fragrance is this which is coming from Khulkh’s land?
And what is this wind which has risen from despoliation and ravages
Saadi Shirazi

Based on the above pieces of evidence and information, we can confidently state that the Qarlaq tribe is one of the proudest tribes of Afghanistan who have played a significant role in the historical richness and cultural prosperity of this land. Because their tribe has been abandoned in Afghanistan in the present era and their Qarlaqans are unaware of their proud history and are unaware of their origins, Thus, this ignorance has been misused by some political circles. And their identities have been put into question. In the article, we shed light on their history, former residence, language, historical pride, their emigration to Afghanistan, and their empires. From these accounts, it is clear that this tribe (Qarluqs) is one of the Afghan Turk tribes of Afghanistan and has a deep and firm connection with this land.
1. – Burhanuddin – Guide to Ghat and Badakhshan – p. 200
2. – Gunnarring – Afghan Turks Preliminary Efforts to Classify Afghan Turkic Tributes Translated by Jalayer Azimi 1370
3. Hudood al-Alam, p. 83; For Khalkh products, see the same, p. 81
4. Introduction to the Turks of Qarluq by Hamid Azar Baijani
5. History of the Qarluq Turks and the Qarakhani Dynasty by Somayeh Bayati – Shiraz M.Sc. Student on the Website of the Library and Museum of Islamic Council Documents

6. Nasir Tabaqat, by Abu Omar Minhajat al-Din Siraj Jawzjani
7. History of Bayhaqi, Abolfazl Mohammad Ibn Hossein Bayhaqi, edited by Dr. Ghani and Dr. Fayyaz, Khajoo Publications, Tehran, 1991
8. http://facenama.com/az-az4
9. Ethno Cultureerral Dictionary, TÜRIK BITIG about the Turks of Qarluq
10. http://bitig.org/index.php?l=Q&wi=265&lang=e&mod=3
11. N.Aristov, “Usuns and Kyrgyzes, or Kara-Kyrgyzes”, Bishkek, 2001, pp. 246-247
12. 2001, pp. 246–247
13. The Golden Peaches OF Sarkand: A Study Of Tʻang Exotics by Edward H. Schaefer
14. https://books.google.com/?id=jqAGIL02BWQC&pg
15. Joshua Project – Azerbaijani People Cluster Great Commission Status
16. http://joshuaproject.net/clusters/126
17. al-Masudi, Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems, ed. Pellat, p. 155; cited in Golden, P. B.
18. Hafiz Shirazi, Shamsuddin Mohammad bin Bahauddin Mohammad (1375). Natel Khanlari, Parviz, Editor. Divan-e-Hafez. ۲. Tehran: Kharazmi.
19. Ferdusi, Abolghasem (2007). Absolute Creator, Glory, Editor. Shah nameh. Eighth. New York: Iran Heritage Foundation.
20. Ferdowsi, Abolghasem (2000). Jeyhuni, Mustafa, editor. Shah nameh. Isfahan: Shahnameh Research.
21. Diwan Rudaki Samarkandi. Based on the version: Saeed Nafisi and Y. Braginsky. Negah Publishing Institute. second edition. 1376.p 34
22. Dr. Javad Heravi, Samanid History, Amir Kabir Publishing, 2003 Tehran
23. Biran, Michal. (2005). “Chapter 3 – The Fall: between the Khwarazm Shah and the Mongols”. The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 41–43.
24. Biran, Michal. (2005). “Chapter 3 – The Fall: between the Khwarazm Shah and the Mongols”. The Empire of the Qara Khitai in Eurasian History: Between China and the Islamic World. Cambridge University Press. pp. 41–43.

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